Published papers

Does Legal Freedom Satisfy? Forthcoming in European Journal of Law and Economics. (With Niclas Berggren)

Coups and the Dynamics of Media Freedom. Forthcoming in Economic Modelling. (With Andreas Freytag and Jerg Gutmann)

Press Freedom, Market Information, and International Trade. Forthcoming in European Journal of Political Economy. (With Philipp Schröder)

Unconstitutional States of Emergency. Forthcoming in Journal of Legal Studies. (With Stefan Voigt and Mahdi Khesali)

A Time to Plot, a Time to Reap: Coups, Regime Changes, and Inequality. Forthcoming in Defence and Peace Economics. (With Bodo Knoll and Martin Rode)

This Time is Different? – On the Use of Emergency Measures During the Corona Pandemic. European Journal of Law and Economics, vol. 54 (2022), 63-81. (With Stefan Voigt)

The Role of Institutions in the Early Entrepreneurial Process. Industrial and Corporate Change, vol. 31 (2022), 905-933. (With Chloe Xu and Nicolai Foss)

Social Trust and Patterns of Growth. Southern Economic Journal, vol. 89 (2022), 216-237.

Late Colonial Antecedents of Modern Democracy. Journal of Institutional Economics, vol. 18 (2022), 569-586. (With Martin Rode)

The Economics of Change and Stability in Social Trust: Evidence from (and for) Catalan Secession. Economics & Politics, vol. 34 (2022), 275-297. (With Miguel Ángel Borella Mas and Martin Rode)

Terrorism and Autocrats: How Effective are Emergency Constitutions in the Muslim World? Journal of Peace Research, vol. 59 (2022), 305-318. (With Stefan Voigt)

Academic Freedom, Institutions, and Productivity. Southern Economic Journal, vol. 88 (2022), 1313-1342. (With Niclas Berggren)

Does Freedom of Expression Cause Less Terrorism? Political Studies. vol. 70 (2022), 131-152. (With Lasse Skjoldager Eskildsen)

Emergencies: On the Misuse of Government Powers. Public Choice, vol. 190 (2022), 1-32. (With Stefan Voigt)

Political Institutions and Academic Freedom: Evidence from Across the World. Public Choice, vol. 190 (2022), 205-228. (With Niclas Berggren)

Did Lockdown Work? An Economist’s Cross-Country Comparison. CESIfo Economic Studies, vol. 67 (2021), 318-331.

Differences Matter: The Effect of Coup Types on Physical Integrity Rights. European Journal of Political Economy, vol. 69 (2021), art. 102027. (With Katharina Pfaff)

Trust us to Repay: Social Trust, Long-Term Interest Rates and Sovereign Credit Ratings. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, vol. 53 (2021), 1151-1174. (With Andreas Bergh)

Is Constitutionalized Media Freedom only Window Dressing? Evidence from Terrorist Attacks. Public Choice, vol. 187 (2021), 321-348. (With Stefan Voigt)

Civic Honesty and Cultures of Trust. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, vol. 92 (2021), art. 101693.

Coups, Regime Transitions, and Institutional Quality. Journal of Comparative Economics, vol. 49 (2021), 627-643. (With Daniel Bennett and Stephan Gohmann)

Does Economic Freedom Boost Growth for Everyone? Kyklos, vol. 74 (2021), 170-186. (With Andreas Bergh)

Democratic Transitions and Monetary Policy: Are Democratic Central Banks Different? Journal of Public Finance and Public Choice, vol. 35 (2020), 163-180. (With Martin Rode)

Constitutional Power Concentration and Corruption: Evidence from Latin America and the Caribbean. Constitutional Political Economy, vol. 31 (2020), 509-536. (With Andrea Sáenz de Viteri)

Does Big Government Hurt Growth Less in High-Trust Countries? Contemporary Economic Policy, vol. 38 (2020), 643-658. (With Andreas Bergh)

Why Do Military Dictatorships Become Presidential Democracies? Mapping the Democratic Interests of Autocratic Regimes. Public Choice, vol. 185 (2020), 21-43.

Migrants and Life Satisfaction: The Role of the Country of Origin and the Country of Residence. Kyklos, vol. 73 (2020), 436-463. (With Niclas Berggren, Andreas Bergh, and Shiori Tanaka)

Regime Types and Regime Change: A New Dataset on Democracy, Coups, and Political Institutions. Review of International Organizations, vol. 15 (2020), 531-551. (With Martin Rode)

When Does Terror Induce a State of Emergency? And What are the Effects? Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 64 (2020), 579-613. (With Stefan Voigt)

Corruption, Judicial Accountability and Inequality: Unfair Procedures may Benefit the Worst-Off.  Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, vol. 170 (2020), 341-354. (With Niclas Berggren)

Wellbeing and Entrepreneurship: Using Establishment Size to Identify Treatment Effects and Transmission Mechanisms. PLOS One, vol. 15 (2020), e0226008. (With Nicolai Foss)

Crisis, Ideology, and Interventionist Policy Ratchets. Political Studies, vol. 67 (2019), 815-833. (With Martin Rode)

Do Voters Dislike Liberalizing Reforms? New Evidence Using Data on Satisfaction with Democracy. Journal of Institutional Economics., vol. 15 (2019), 631-648. (With Niclas Berggren)

The Context of Entrepreneurial Judgment: Organizations, Markets, and Institutions. Journal of Management Studies, vol. 56 (2019), 1167-1213. (With Nicolai Foss and Peter Klein)

Populism: Three Approaches to an International Problem. Economic Affairs, vol. 39 (2019), 273-281.

Do Social Rights Affect Social Outcomes? American Journal of Political Science, vol. 63 (2019), 452-466. (With Jacob Mchangama)

Regulation and Government Debt. Public Choice, vol. 178 (2019), 153-178. (With Niclas Berggren)

Why Do Governments Call a State of Emergency? On the Determinants of Using Emergency Constitutions. European Journal of Political Economy, vol. 54 (2018), 110-123. (With Stefan Voigt)

The Hayek-Friedman Hypothesis on the Press: Is there an Association between Economic Freedom and Press Freedom? Journal of Institutional Economics, vol. 14 (2018), 617-638.

The Architecture of Emergency Constitutions. International Journal of Constitutional Law, vol. 16 (2018), 101-127. (With Stefan Voigt)

Do Equal Rights for a Minority Affect General Life Satisfaction? Journal of Happiness Studies. vol. 19 (2018), 1465.-1483 (With Niclas Berggren and Therese Nilsson)

Do Liberalizing Reforms Harm the Environment? Evidence from the Post-Communist Transition. Economics Affairs, vol. 38 (2018), 22-37.

Dealing with Disaster: Analyzing the Emergency Constitutions of the U.S. states. Arizona State Law Journal, vol. 49 (2017), 883-906. (With Stefan Voigt)

Economic Freedom and Veto Players Jointly Affect Entrepreneurship. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 6 (2017), 340-358. (With Jacob Lihn)

Trust and Delegation: Theory and Evidence. Journal of Comparative Economics, vol. 45 (2017), 644-657. (With Nurullah Gur)

The Market-Promoting and Market-Preserving Role of Social Trust in Reforms of Policies and Institutions. Southern Economic Journal, vol. 84 (2017), 3-25. (With Niclas Berggren)

What Aspects of Society Affect the Quality of Life of a Minority? Global Evidence from the New Gay Happiness Index. Social Indicators Research, vol. 132 (2017), 1163-1192. (With Niclas Berggren and Therese Nilsson)

Growth, Inequality and Economic Freedom: Evidence from the US States. Contemporary Economic Policy, vol. 35 (2017), 518-531.

Economic Freedom and Economic Crises. European Journal of Political Economy, vol. 45 (2016), S11-S23.

Institutions, Entrepreneurship, and Economic Growth: What Do We Know? And What Do We Still Need to Know? Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 30 (2016), 292-315. (With Nicolai J. Foss)

An Offer You Can’t Refuse: Murdering Journalists as an Enforcement Mechanism of Corrupt Deals. Public Choice, vol. 167 (2016), 221-243. (With Andreas Freytag)

Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being: Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment. World Bank Economic Review, vol. 30 (2016), 55-77. (With Jacob Gerner Hariri and Mogens Kamp Justesen)

Social Trust Fosters an Ability to Help Those in Need: Jewish Refugees in the Nazi Era. Political Studies, vol. 63 (2015), 951-974.

How do Institutions Affect Happiness and Misery? A Tale of Two Tails. Comparative Sociology, vol. 14 (2015), 353-385. (With Ming-Chang Tsai)

Constitutional Property Rights Protection and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Post-Communist Transition. Constitutional Political Economy, vol. 26 (2015), 247-280.

The Productivity of Trust. World Development, 70 (2015), 317-331. (With Pierre-Guillaume Méon)

Legitimacy and the Cost of Government. Public Choice, vol. 162 (2015), 307-328. (With Niclas Berggren and David Lipka)

What Matters for Growth in Europe: Institutions versus Policies, Quality versus Stability. Journal of Economic Policy Reform, vol. 18 (2015), 69-88.  (With Niclas Berggren and Andreas Bergh)

Does Economic Freedom Really Kill? On the Association between ‘Neoliberal Policies’ and Homicide Rates. European Journal of Political Economy, vol. 37 (2015), 207-219.

Constitutional Verbosity and Social Trust. Public Choice, vol. 161 (2014), 91-112. (With Stefan Voigt)

Trust, Welfare States and Inequality: Sorting out the Causality. European Journal of Political Economy, vol. 25 (2014), 183-199. (With Andreas Bergh)

Economic Growth and Institutional Reform in Modern Monarchies and Republics: A Historical Cross-Country Perspective 1820-2000. Journal of Theoretical and Institutional Economics, vol. 170 (2014), 453-481. (With Peter Kurrild-Klitgaard)

Exploiting the Poor: Bureaucratic Corruption and Poverty in Africa. World Development, vol. 58 (2014), 106-115. (With Mogens Kamp Justesen)

Do Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises? Journal of Happiness Studies, vol. 15 (2014), 163-182.

Public Choice, Political Economy and Development: An Introduction to the Life, Times and Themes of Martin Paldam. Public Choice, vol. 157 (2013), 357-365. (With Toke Aidt, Peter Kurrild-Klitgaard and Gert T. Svendsen)

Is Trust the Missing Root of Institutions, Education, and Development? Public Choice, vol. 157 (2013), 641-669. (With Pierre-Guillaume Méon)

Is Social Capital a Good Concept? Social Indicators Research, vol. 114 (2013), 1225-1242. (With Kim Sønderskov)

Are Debt Repayment Incentives Undermined by Foreign Aid? Journal of Comparative Economics, vol. 41 (2013), 1073-1091. (With Philipp Schröder)

Does Social Trust Determine the Size of the Welfare State? Evidence Using Historical Identification. Public Choice, vol. 157 (2013), 269-286. (With Gert T. Svendsen)

The Size and Scope of Government in the US States. Does Political Ideology Matter? International Tax and Public Finance, vol. 20 (2013), 687-714. (With Niklas Potrafke)

Inequality and Happiness: When Perceived Social Mobility and Economic Reality Do Not Match. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, vol. 91 (2013), 75-92, (With Axel Dreher, Justina Fischer, Kai Gehring and Jan Schnellenbach)

Does Religiosity Promote Property Rights and the Rule of Law? Journal of Institutional Economics, vol. 9 (2013), 161-185. (With Niclas Berggren)

How Strategic Entrepreneurship and the Institutional Context Drive Economic Growth. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, vol. 7 (2013), 50-69. (With Nicolai J. Foss)

Can Bribes Buy Protection Against International Competition? Review of World Economics, vol. 148 (2012), 751-775.

On the Determinants of Honesty Perceptions in the United States. Rationality and Society, vol. 24 (2012), 257-294.

The Growth Effects of Institutional Instability. Journal of Institutional Economics, vol. 8 (2012), 187-224. (With Niclas Berggren and Andreas Bergh)

How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth? Southern Economic Journal, vol. 78 (2012), 1346-1368.

Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces. Eastern Economic Journal, vol. 38 (2012), 143-166. (With Niklas Potrafke)

The Spirit of Capitalism and Socialism: A Cross-Country Study of Ideology. Public Choice, vol. 150 (2012), 469-498. (With Martin Paldam)

Is the Importance of Religion in Daily Life Related to Social Trust? Cross-Country and Cross-State Comparisons. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, vol. 80 (2011), 459-480. (With Niclas Berggren)

Social Trust and Human Development. Journal of Socio-Economics, vol. 40 (2011), 753-762. (With Burçu Özcan)

Combating Corruption: On the Interplay between Institutional Quality and Social Trust. Journal of Law and Economics, vol. 54 (2011), 135-159.

Social Diversity, Institutions, and Trust: A Cross-National Analysis. Social Indicators Research, vol. 101 (2011), 305-322. (With Ming-Chang Tsai and Leslie Laczko)

Growth, Debt Burdens and Alleviating Effects of Foreign Aid in Least Developed Countries. European Journal of Political Economy, vol. 27 (2011), 143-153. (With Christina Bjerg and Anne Holm)

Politics and Privatization in Central and Eastern Europe: A Panel Data Analysis. Economics of Transition, vol. 19 (2011), 201-230. (With Niklas Potrafke)

A Different Rationale for Redistribution: A Comment. Journal of Happiness Studies, vol. 12 (2011), 343-347.

Historical Trust Levels Predict the Current Size of the Welfare State. Kyklos, vol. 64 (2011), 1-19. (With Andreas Bergh)

Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing: Revisiting the Cross-Country Evidence. European Journal of Political Economy, vol. 26 (2010), 419-430. (With Axel Dreher and Justina Fischer)

How does Social Trust lead to Better Governance? An Attempt to Separate Electoral and Bureaucratic Mechanisms. Public Choice, vol. 144 (2010), 323-346.

Do Elites Benefit from Democracy and Foreign Aid in Developing Countries? Journal of Development Economics, vol. 92 (2010), 115-124.

How Comparable are the Gallup World Poll Life Satisfaction Data? Journal of Happiness Studies, vol. 11 (2010), 41-60.

Social Trust and the Growth of Schooling. Economics of Education Review, vol. 28 (2009), 249-257. (WP-version available)

Social Capital and Happiness in the United States. Applied Research in Quality of Life, vol. 3 (2008), 43-62.

The Growth-Inequality Association: Government Ideology Matters. Journal of Development Economics, vol. 87 (2008), 300-308.

Social Trust and Fractionalization: A Possible Reinterpretation. European Sociological Review, vol. 24 (2008), 271-283.

Analyzing Trends in Subjective Well-Being in 15 European Countries, 1973-2002. Journal of Happiness Studies, vol. 9 (2008), 317-330. (With Nabanita Datta Gupta and Peder Pedersen)

On Decentralization and Life Satisfaction. Economics Letters, vol. 99 (2008), 147-151. (With Axel Dreher and Justina Fischer)

Healthy and Happy in Europe? On the Association between Happiness and Life Expectancy over Time. Social Science & Medicine, vol. 66 (2008), 1750-1759.

Economic Freedom and Entrepreneurial Activity: Some Cross-Country Evidence. Public Choice, vol. 134 (2008), 307-328. (with Nicolai J. Foss). Also published as chapter 16 in Nicolai J. Foss (ed.), Knowledge, Economic Organization, and Property Rights. London: Edward Elgar (2009); and chapter 10 in Andreas Freytag and Roy Thurik (eds.), Entrepreneurship and Culture. Dordrecht: Springer (2009).

Cross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants across Groups in Society. Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 30 (2008), 119-173. (With Axel Dreher and Justina Fischer)

How to Construct a Robust Measure of Social Capital: Two Contributions. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, vol. 9 (2007), 275-292. (With Gert T. Svendsen)

The Bigger the Better? Evidence of the Effect of Government Size on Life Satisfaction around the World. Public Choice, vol. 130 (2007), 267-292. (With Axel Dreher and Justina Fischer)

Determinants of Generalized Trust. A Cross-Country Comparison. Public Choice, vol. 130 (2007), 1-21.

The Multiple Facets of Social Capital. European Journal of Political Economy, vol. 22 (2006), 22-40.

Underlying Policies in the WTO, the Harbinson Proposal and the Modalities Agreement. Revue Economique, vol. 56 (2005), 1385-1412. (With Kim Martin Lind)

Does Political Ideology Affect Economic Growth? Public Choice, vol. 123 (2005), 133-146.

Hvem kan U-landene samarbejde med i den nye WTO-runde? Nationaløkonomisk Tidsskrift, vol. 141 (2003), 112-129. (With Kim Martin Lind)

The Happy Few. Cross-Country Evidence on Social Capital and Life Satisfaction. Kyklos, vol. 56 (2003), 3-16.

Where Do Developing Countries Go After Doha? An analysis of WTO positions and potential alliances. Journal of World Trade, vol. 36 (2002), 543-562. (With Kim Martin Lind)

Counting In Social Capital When Easing Agricultural Credit Constraints. Journal of Microfinance, vol. 4 (2002), 17-36. (With Jarka Chloupková)

Books, anthologies and journals without peer review

Den Svenska Tillväxtkulturen. Ekonomisk Debatt, vol. 50 (2022), 47-57. (With Niclas Berggren)

Økonomisk Frihed og Handlen. In Brian Degn Mårtensson and Stefan Kirkegaard Sløk-Madsen (Eds.), Borger & Stat. Aarhus: Klim (2022), 14-31.

Public Choice. In Brian Degn Mårtensson and Stefan Kirkegaard Sløk-Madsen (Eds.), Borger & Stat. Aarhus: Klim (2022), 477-507. (With Stefan Kirkegaard Sløk-Madsen)

Happiness in the Nordic Countries. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press; and Aarhus: Aarhus University Press (2021).

Institutions and Life Satisfaction. Forthcoming in Klaus F. Zimmermann (Ed.), Handbook of Labor, Human Resources and Population Economics. Berlin: Springer. (With Niclas Berggren)

Social and Legal Trust: The Case of Africa. Chapter 1 in Kevin Vallier and Michael Weber (Eds.), Social Trust: Foundational and Philosophical Issues. New York: Routledge (2021), 9-28. (With Andreas Bergh and Kevin Vallier)

Types of Foreign Aid. Chapter 3 in Claudia R. Williamson and Nabamita Dutta (Eds.), Lessons on Foreign Aid and Economic Development: Micro and Macro Perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (2019), 33-61.

The Political Economy of Trust. Chapter 32 in Roger Congleton, Bernard Grofman and Stefan Voigt (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Public Choice. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2019), 628-648.

Social Trust and Economic Growth. Chapter 22 in Eric M. Uslaner (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Social and Political Trust. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2018), 535-555.

William Easterly’s Challenge to the Development Community. Chapter 4 in William Easterly (Ed.), The Economics of International Development: Foreign Aid versus Freedom for the World’s Poor. London: Institute of Economic Affairs (2016), 55-72.

Tillid og Velfærdsstaten. Tidsskrift for Professionsstudier, vol. 22 (2016), 22-28.

How Institutions of Liberty Promote Entrepreneurship and Growth. Chapter 6 in James Gwartney, Robert Lawson and Joshua Hall (eds.), Economic Freedom of the World: Annual Report 2012. Vancouver: the Fraser Institute, 247-270. (With Nicolai J. Foss)

Giver Aktivistisk Forskningspolitik Mening? Chapter 15 in David Budtz Pedersen and Jan Faye (eds.), Hvordan Styres Videnssamfundet? Demokrati, Ledelse og Organisering. Copenhagen: Nyt fra Samfundsvidenskaberne (2012), 359-372.

Wellbeing and the Size of Government. Chapter 6 in Philip Booth (ed.), … and the Pursuit of Happiness. London: Institute for Economic Affairs (2012), 162-180.

På Sporet af den Skandinaviske Tillid. Chapter 8 in Paul Hegedahl and Gunnar L.H. Svendsen (eds.), Tillid – Samfundets Fundament. Odense: Syddansk Universitetsforlag (2011), 127-140. (With Gert T. Svendsen and Gunnar L.H. Svendsen)

Tillid og Økonomisk Vækst. Chapter 6 in Paul Hegedahl and Gunnar L.H. Svendsen (eds.), Tillid – Samfundets Fundament. Odense: Syddansk Universitetsforlag (2011), 99-110.

Showdown om Vestlige Værdier i Paris. In Mikael Jalving and Nikolaj Gammeltoft (eds.), 89´erne – Politiske visioner fra en borgerlig revolution. Copenhagen: Cepos (2010), 76-78.

Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett: The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger. Population and Development Review, vol. 36 (2010), 395-397. (Book review)

Ottar Hellevik (2008): Jakten på den Norske Lykken. Norsk Statsvitenskapelig Tidskrift, vol. 25 (2009), 289-292. (Book review)

Economic Growth. In Gert T. Svendsen and Gunnar L.H. Svendsen (eds.), Handbook of Social Capital. London: Edward Elgar (2009), ch. 20.

The Relation between Inequality and Happiness – do Subjective Perceptions Matter? Pp. 471-477 in Values and Economy. Proceedings of the 32nd IAREP Conference. Ljubljana: Filozofska Fakulteta (2007). (With Axel Dreher and Justina Fischer)

Udviklingsbistand og Institutionel Kvalitet. Økonomi & Politik, vol. 80 (2007), 32-44.

Potential Coalitions and Convergence in the Doha Round. In Eugenio Diaz-Bonilla, Søren E. Frandsen and Sherman Robinson (eds.), WTO Negotiations and International Trade Liberalization: What’s at Stake for Developing Countries? Wallingford: CABI Publishing (2006), 142-161. (With Kim Martin Lind)

Corruption Trends. In Johan Lambsdorff, Markus Taube and Matthias Schramm, (eds.), The New Institutional Economics of Corruption. London: Routledge (2004), 59-75. (With Martin Paldam)

EU’s handelsinitiativer overfor udviklingslandene: Cotonou-aftalen og ‘Everything but Arms’ initiativet. In Landbrugets Økonomi – Efteråret 2001 (Danish Agricultural Economy – autumn 2001), the Danish Research Institute of Food Economics (2001), ch. 2.